The Qaathi arose in and established towns in the grasslands, often coming into conflict with the Sarnori. They would often lose these wars, and so began to drift farther south, founding new city-states, among them Qarth on the coast of the Summer Sea. However, these lands began to turn into desert just as they established their foothold there. The Qaathi were already on their way to collapse when the Doom of Valyria struck. Any hope of using the ensuing chaos to their advantage vanished when the Dothraki ventured into the desert, the Red Waste, destroying all remaining Qaathi cities save for Qarth itself, protected by its triple walls.
- The World of Ice and Fire, The Grasslands