The Qaathi are an ancient people native to the southeastern region of the grasslands of central Essos, in what is now the Dothraki sea. They are nearly extinct, save for a remnant in Qarth. The Dothraki refer to the Qartheen as Milk Men because of their pale complexion.
Little is known of the Qaathi, aside from them arising from towns in the the grassslands of central Essos. They sometimes came into conflict with the Sarnori to their north. The Qaathi often lost these wars, so they began founding new city-states farther south, among them Qarth on the coast of the Summer Sea. However, these lands began to turn into desert, the red waste, just as the Qaathi established their foothold there.
The Qaathi were further hampered by the Doom of Valyria, as the Dothraki began venturing into the desert during the Century of Blood. The horselords destroyed all remaining Qaathi cities save for Qarth, which is protected by its triple walls. Several ruined Qartheen settlements have now been given Dothraki names, including Vaes Orvik, Vaes Qosar, Vaes Shirosi, and possibly Vaes Tolorro.