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<p><i><b>A Song of Ice and Fire</b></i> (commonly abbreviated as <b>ASoIaF</b>) is a series of epic fantasy novels by American author <a _fcknotitle="true" href="George R. R. Martin">George R. R. Martin</a>. According to the author, the series will consist of seven novels.
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'''''A Song of Ice and Fire''''' (commonly abbreviated as '''ASoIaF''') is a series of epic fantasy novels by American author [[George R. R. Martin]]. According to the author, the series will consist of seven novels.
</p>
 
<h2>Novels and novellas</h2>
 
<p>Five of these novels have been completed and published:
 
</p>
 
<ul><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="A Game of Thrones">A Game of Thrones</a></i> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_in_literature" class="extiw" title="w:1996 in literature">(1996)</a>
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="A Clash of Kings">A Clash of Kings</a></i>  <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998_in_literature" class="extiw" title="w:1998 in literature">(1998)</a>
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="A Storm of Swords">A Storm of Swords</a></i> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2000_in_literature" class="extiw" title="w:2000 in literature">(2000)</a>
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="A Feast for Crows">A Feast for Crows</a></i> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_in_books" class="extiw" title="w:2005 in books">(2005)</a>
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="A Dance with Dragons">A Dance with Dragons</a></i> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_in_books" class="extiw" title="w:2011 in books">(2011)</a>
 
</li></ul>
 
<p>The remaining two novels are provisionally titled:
 
</p>
 
<ul><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="The Winds of Winter">The Winds of Winter</a></i>
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="A Dream of Spring">A Dream of Spring</a></i> (formerly known as <i>A Time for Wolves</i>)
 
</li></ul>
 
<p>There are also three prequel novellas to the series, set roughly 90 years before the novels.
 
</p>
 
<ul><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="The Hedge Knight">The Hedge Knight</a></i> (1998)
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="The Sworn Sword">The Sworn Sword</a></i> (2003)
 
</li><li> <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="The Mystery Knight">The Mystery Knight</a></i> (2010)
 
</li></ul>
 
<p>These short stories are commonly known as "Dunk and Egg" stories (after their protagonists). <i>The Hedge Knight</i> is also available as a graphic novel from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dabel_Brothers_Productions" class="extiw" title="w:Dabel Brothers Productions">Dabel Brothers Productions</a>; an adaptation of <i>The Sworn Sword</i> is forthcoming from the same company. The author has said that he would like to write a number of these stories (varying from six to twelve from interview to interview) covering the entire lives of these two characters.
 
</p><p>The series has been placed as the number 1 rated series at the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliographic_database#Internet_Book_List" class="extiw" title="w:Bibliographic database">Internet Book List</a> since a revision of the rating system in October 2005.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[http://www.iblist.com/list_by_rating.php?type=series list Internet book list rating ASOIAF], retrieved December 20th, 2006</span>
 
</p>
 
<h2>Themes of the novels</h2>
 
<p>The books are known for complex characters, sudden and often violent plot twists, and political intrigue. In a genre where <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_(paranormal)" class="extiw" title="w:Magic (paranormal)">magic</a> usually takes center stage, this series has a reputation for its limited and subtle use of magic, employing it as an ambiguous and often sinister background force.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">SFX Magazine #138 feature, Christmas 2005</span>  Finally, the novels do not (presently) center around a climactic clash between "Good" and "Evil;" plot lines have revolved primarily around political infighting and civil war, with only one or two storyline arcs even suggesting the possibility of an external threat.
 
</p><p>The novels are narrated from a very strict <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/third_person_limited_omniscient" class="extiw" title="w:third person limited omniscient">third person limited omniscient</a> perspective, the chapters alternating between different <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Point of view">Point of view</a> characters.  Martin's treatment of his characters makes them extremely hard to classify: very few can be labeled as "good" or "evil".  The author also has a reputation of not being afraid to kill any character, no matter how major.
 
</p>
 
<h2>Storyline overview</h2>
 
<p><i><b>A Song of Ice and Fire</b></i> is set primarily in the fictional Seven Kingdoms of <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Westeros">Westeros</a>, a large, South American-sized continent with an ancient history stretching back some twelve thousand years. A detailed history reveals how seven kingdoms came to dominate this continent, and then how these seven nations were united as one by Aegon the Conqueror, of <a _fcknotitle="true" href="House Targaryen">House Targaryen</a>. Some 283 years after Aegon's conquest, the Targaryens are overthrown in a civil war and King <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Robert Baratheon">Robert Baratheon</a>, backed primarily by his friend Lord <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Eddard Stark">Eddard Stark</a> and foster father Lord <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Jon Arryn">Jon Arryn</a>, takes the Iron Throne. The novels, which begin fifteen years later, follow the fall-out from this event across three major storylines, set not only in Westeros but on the eastern continent as well.
 
</p><p>The first storyline, set in the Seven Kingdoms themselves, chronicles a many-sided struggle for the Iron Throne that develops after King Robert's death. The throne is claimed by his son <a href="Joffrey Baratheon">Joffrey</a>, supported by his mother's powerful family, <a _fcknotitle="true" href="House Lannister">House Lannister</a>, but Robert's brother <a href="Stannis Baratheon">Stannis</a> claims that Robert's children are illegitimate, and claims the throne himself, to a less-than-enthusiastic response. Robert's youngest brother, <a href="Renly Baratheon">Renly</a>, also claims the throne with the support of the extremely powerful <a _fcknotitle="true" href="House Tyrell">House Tyrell</a>. Whilst these three claimants battle for the throne itself, <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Robb Stark">Robb Stark</a>, Lord Eddard Stark's heir, is proclaimed King in the North as the northmen and their allies in the Riverlands seek to break away from the Iron Throne and rule themselves. Similarly, <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Balon Greyjoy">Balon Greyjoy</a> also claims the throne of his own region, the Iron Islands, and likewise seeks independence.  The War of the Five Kings is the principal storyline  in the second and third novels, with its fall-out and repercussions affecting much of what follows.
 
</p><p>The second storyline is set on the extreme northern border of Westeros. Here, eight thousand years ago, a huge wall of ice and gravel was constructed by spells and by hand to defend Westeros from the threat of '<a _fcknotitle="true" href="The Others">The Others</a>', a semi-mythical race of ice creatures living in the uttermost north. The 300-mile-long, 700-foot-tall Wall is defended by the Sworn Brotherhood of the <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Night's Watch">Night's Watch</a>, which by the time of the novels is badly under-strength and under threat by the human 'wildlings' or 'free folk' who live to the north. This storyline strand follows <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Jon Snow">Jon Snow</a>, <a href="Bastardy">bastard</a> son of Lord <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Eddard Stark">Eddard Stark</a>, as he rises through the ranks of the Watch and learns the true nature of the threat from the north. By the end of the third volume, this storyline has become more entangled with the civil war to the south as well.
 
</p><p>The third storyline is set on the huge eastern continent and follows the adventures of <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Daenerys Targaryen">Daenerys Targaryen</a>, the last (known) scion of <a _fcknotitle="true" href="House Targaryen">House Targaryen</a> and another claimant to the Iron Throne. Daenerys's story shows her growing rise to power, from a near-penniless wanderer to a powerful and canny ruler who possesses the last living dragons. Though her story is separated from the others by many thousands of miles, her stated goal is to reclaim the Iron Throne. Although she is not known to many in Westeros, the chaos of two civil wars in rapid succession has led to much yearning among the smallfolk for the days of stability under the Targaryens. Daenerys' storyline will return her to Westeros before the end of the series.
 
</p><p>The eponymous Song of Ice and Fire is mentioned only once in the series, in a vision Daenerys sees in <i>A Clash of Kings</i>: "He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire", spoken by a Targaryen (probably Daenerys's dead older brother <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Rhaegar Targaryen">Rhaegar Targaryen</a>) about his infant son named Aegon. It is implied that there is a connection between the song, the promise, and Daenerys herself. This is established more clearly in <i>A Feast for Crows</i>, when Aemon Targaryen identifies Daenerys as the heir that was promised. The phrase "ice and fire" is also mentioned in the Reeds' oath of loyalty to Bran in <i>A Clash of Kings</i>. However, the song and the promise are never mentioned again, and the song itself remains a mystery.
 
</p><p><i>See also:</i> <a href=":Category:Characters">List of all characters</a>
 
</p>
 
<h2>Historical and literary sources</h2>
 
<p>Numerous parallels have been seen between the events and characters in <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i> and events and people involved in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses" class="extiw" title="w:Wars of the Roses">Wars of the Roses</a>. Two of the principal families in <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i>, the Starks and the Lannisters, are seen as representing the historical <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_York" class="extiw" title="w:House of York">House of York</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Lancaster" class="extiw" title="w:House of Lancaster">House of Lancaster</a>, respectively.
 
</p><p>A similar reality-inspired conflict is the succession struggle called the <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Dance of the Dragons">Dance of the Dragons</a> between two children Aegon II and Rhaenyra.  A historical struggle (labeled <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anarchy" class="extiw" title="w:The Anarchy">The Anarchy</a>) between <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Matilda" class="extiw" title="w:Empress Matilda">Empress Matilda</a>, daughter of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England" class="extiw" title="w:Henry I of England">Henry I of England</a>, and her cousin <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_of_England" class="extiw" title="w:Stephen of England">Stephen of Blois</a>, provides the inspiration.  Each daughter is announced as her father's successor, but due to differing reasons, male rivals seize the crown and are anointed as rulers.  During the dynastic struggle, the rival claimants are deposed and succeeded by the son (<a _fcknotitle="true" href="Aegon III">Aegon III</a> and Henry II of England respectively) of the original designated heir.  Neither Empress Matilda nor Rhaenyra actually ruled in their own name.
 
</p><p>Martin is an avid student of medieval Europe, and has said that the Wars of the Roses, along with many other events in Europe during that time, have influenced the series. However, he insists that "there's really no one-for-one character-for-character correspondence. I like to use history to flavor my fantasy, to add texture and verisimilitude, but simply rewriting history with the names changed has no appeal for me. I prefer to re-imagine it all, and take it in new and unexpected directions." <span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM01.html So Spake Martin Report #1]</span>
 
</p><p>Martin has also said the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albigensian_Crusade" class="extiw" title="w:Albigensian Crusade">Albigensian Crusades</a> are an influence for the series.
 
</p>
 
<h2>Origins of the series</h2>
 
<p>Although George RR Martin had long had a love of model knights and medieval <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/history" class="extiw" title="w:history">history</a>, his early novels and short stories mostly fit into the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/science_fiction" class="extiw" title="w:science fiction">science fiction</a> genre, although eventually several fantasy stories did appear, such as <i>The Ice Dragon</i>. In the mid-1980s, Martin worked mainly in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollywood" class="extiw" title="w:Hollywood">Hollywood</a>, principally as a writer or producer on <i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_Twilight_Zone" class="extiw" title="w:The New Twilight Zone">The New Twilight Zone</a></i> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beauty_and_the_Beast_(TV_series)" class="extiw" title="w:Beauty and the Beast (TV series)"><i>Beauty and the Beast</i></a>. After <i>Beauty and the Beast</i> ended in 1989 Martin returned to writing prose and started work on a science fiction novel called <i>Avalon</i>. In 1991, whilst struggling with this story, Martin conceived of a scene where several youngsters find a dead direwolf with a stag's antler in its throat. The direwolf has several pups, which are taken by the youngsters to raise as their own. Martin's imagination was fired by this idea and he developed it into an <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/epic_fantasy" class="extiw" title="w:epic fantasy">epic fantasy</a> story, which he envisaged as a trilogy consisting of the books <i>A Game of Thrones</i>, <i>A Dance with Dragons</i> and <i>The Winds of Winter</i>. Martin had previously apparently not been inspired by the genre, but reading <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tad_Williams" class="extiw" title="w:Tad Williams">Tad Williams</a>' <i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory,_Sorrow,_and_Thorn" class="extiw" title="w:Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn">Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn</a></i> series had convinced him it could be approached in a more adult and mature way than previous authors.
 
</p><p>In 1992 he put the book to one side when one of his TV ideas was picked up by Hollywood, resulting in the production of a pilot called <i>Doorways</i>. The pilot was not successful and not picked up for a series.
 
</p><p>In 1994 Martin resumed work on <i>A Game of Thrones</i> and completed it the following year, although he was only one-third of the way through his initial plan for the first novel. Martin then expanded the series to four books, and eventually to six. Publication of <i>A Game of Thrones</i> followed in early 1996. Pre-release publicity included publication of a 'sample novella' called <i>Blood of the Dragon</i>.
 
</p><p>After expanding the series to four volumes, Martin remarked, "What can I say? It's a BIG story, and a cast of thousands." <span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Martin in post to ''Legends'', October 6 1998. [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM01.html So Spake Martin – Posts to Legends (SSL)]</span>
 
</p><p>After <i>A Storm of Swords</i> was completed in 2000, Martin began writing <i>A Dance with Dragons</i>, the intended fourth volume which would pick up the story five years after the previous volume. Martin found it difficult to make this work without an over-reliance on flashbacks. At the World Science Fiction Convention in Philadelphia on 1 September 2001, Martin announced that he was scrapping more than a year's work and writing a different fourth book that would fill in the gap, named <i>A Feast for Crows</i>. He found it extremely difficult to go back and start again, especially as this novel was not planned for in his scheme for the series, and work on the book progressed slowly.
 
</p><p>By May 2005 <i>A Feast for Crows</i> had become longer than <i>A Storm of Swords</i> and his publishers said they could not publish the book in one volume. They suggested splitting the book in two and releasing the volumes as <i>A Feast for Crows, Volume I</i> and <i>A Feast for Crows, Volume II</i>, but Martin was unhappy with this idea. After discussing the matter with his publishers and his friend and fellow writer Daniel Abraham, Martin decided to split the book by character and location instead. The published <i>A Feast for Crows</i> thus contained all of the characters in the South of the Seven Kingdoms, whilst the forthcoming <i>A Dance with Dragons</i> will contain the characters in the North, the Free Cities and in Slaver's Bay.
 
</p><p>In a May 2005 statement, the author also said that this move now meant that the series would require seven volumes. Martin recognized that this decision could cause frustration among some of his fans. He wrote: "I know some of you may be disappointed, especially when you buy <i>A Feast for Crows</i> and discover that your favorite character does not appear, but given the realities I think this was the best solution... and the more I look at it, the more convinced I am that these two parallel novels, when taken together, will actually tell the story better than one big book." <span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Message on Martin's website, May 29 2005  [http://www.georgerrmartin.com/done.html It's Done!!!]</span>
 
</p><p>Despite the problems, <i>A Feast for Crows</i> was released in October 2005 and immediately won largely positive reviews. <i>Time Magazine</i> dubbed Martin, "The American <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._R._R._Tolkien" class="extiw" title="w:J. R. R. Tolkien">Tolkien</a>"<a href="http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1129596,00.html">[n]</a>, and the novel went straight to the top of the <i>New York Times</i> bestseller list.
 
</p><p>On January 24, 2006, Martin updated a statement on his personal site to note that he had completed 542 of an estimated 1200-1300 manuscript pages for the new book, <i>A Dance with Dragons</i>. In the same statement, he explains that while the fifth book will run in a parallel timeline with the fourth, there is nothing to stop the line from extending further; hinting that if room remains, he will include chapters for some of the characters left in a cliffhanger-state at the end of the previous novel.  He rounds out his site update by stating, "And before anyone writes me asking, yes, there is a third Dunk and Egg novella in the works as well. It's maybe three-quarters done, and sometime soon I want to find the time to finish that one too." <span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Message on Martin's website, January 24 2006 [http://www.georgerrmartin.com/nextbook.html Update]</span>
 
</p><p>In a later update, Martin confirmed that the fifth book will be completed in early 2007 for publication in late 2007. He lost some time in writing the book due to a demanding appearances schedule and also due to home renovations.
 
</p>
 
<h2>TV adaptation</h2>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{Main|Game of Thrones}}</span> In March 2010, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HBO" class="extiw" title="w:HBO">HBO</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/greenlit" class="extiw" title="w:greenlit">RTENOTITLE</a> a television series based on <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i>, with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Benioff" class="extiw" title="w:David Benioff">David Benioff</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D.B._Weiss" class="extiw" title="w:D.B. Weiss">Dan Weiss</a> attached to write and executive produce.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref" name="THR 2010-03-02">{{cite web |url=http://www.thrfeed.com/2010/03/hbo-greenlights-game-of-thrones-.html  |last=Hibberd |first=James |publisher=THRfeed.com |title=HBO  greenlights ''Game of Thrones'' to series  |date=March 2, 2010 |accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</span>  Called <i><a _fcknotitle="true" href="Game of Thrones">Game of Thrones</a></i>, it stars <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sean_Bean" class="extiw" title="w:Sean Bean">Sean Bean</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Dinklage" class="extiw" title="w:Peter Dinklage">Peter Dinklage</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lena_Headey" class="extiw" title="w:Lena Headey">Lena Headey</a>.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref" name="SciFi 2010-03-02" /><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref" name="Variety 2010-03-02">{{cite news|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118015939.html?categoryid=14&amp;cs=1&amp;query=george+R.+R.+martin  |last=Levine |first=Stuart |publisher=Variety.com |title=HBO greenlights ''Game of Thrones'' |date=March 2,  2010|accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</span>  The series will cover one novel's worth of material per season,<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref" name="variety2007-01" /> and premiered on April 17, 2011.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">http://www.hbo.com/game-of-thrones/index.html</span>  Game of Thrones has been extremely well received critically, and has garnered a loyal fanbase. On April 19, 2011, after airing only one episode, HBO announced that it had renewed Game of Thrones for a second season.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2011/04/19/hbo-renews-game-of-thrones-for-second-season-premiere-grossed-4-2-million-on-hbo-sunday-night/89922</span>
 
</p>
 
<h2>Spin-offs</h2>
 
<p>In addition to the novels and novellas, there are number of other products inspired by the series.
 
</p>
 
<h3>Related publications</h3>
 
<p>Some of the novels' chapters have appeared previously in collected form in other outlets.
 
</p>
 
<ul><li> <i>Blood of the Dragon</i> (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asimov%27s_Science_Fiction" class="extiw" title="w:Asimov's Science Fiction">Asimov’s</a>, July 1996) based on the <i>Daenerys</i> chapters from <i>A Game of Thrones</i>. Received the 1997 <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Award_for_Best_Novella" class="extiw" title="w:Hugo Award for Best Novella">Hugo Award for Best Novella</a>.
 
</li><li> <i>Path of the Dragon</i> (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asimov%27s_Science_Fiction" class="extiw" title="w:Asimov's Science Fiction">Asimov’s</a>, December 2000) based on the <i>Daenerys</i> chapters from <i>A Storm of Swords</i>.
 
</li><li> <i>Arms of the Kraken</i> (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragon_(magazine)" class="extiw" title="w:Dragon (magazine)">Dragon</a> issue 305, August 2002) based on the Iron Islands chapters from <i>A Feast for Crows</i>.
 
</li></ul>
 
<h3><i>A Game of Thrones collectible card game</i></h3>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{main|A Game of Thrones collectible card game}}</span>
 
</p><p>This is a collectible card game (CCG) produced by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fantasy_Flight_Games" class="extiw" title="w:Fantasy Flight Games">Fantasy Flight Games</a>. A number of base sets have been released for the game, each with a number of expansions. The game's primary designer is Eric Lang and the lead developer is Nate French. The <i>A Game of Thrones: Westeros Edition</i> won the Origins Award for <i>Best Trading Card Game of 2002</i>. The <i>Game of Thrones: Ice and Fire Edition</i> won the Origins Award for <i>Best Card Game Expansion or Supplement of 2003</i>. It is an ongoing project consisting of five editions and eight expansions to date.
 
</p>
 
<h3><i>A Game of Thrones Board Game</i></h3>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{main|A Game of Thrones (board game)}}</span>
 
</p><p>In 2003, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fantasy_Flight_Games" class="extiw" title="w:Fantasy Flight Games">Fantasy Flight Games</a> released the <i>A Game of Thrones</i> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German-style_board_game" class="extiw" title="w:German-style board game">strategy board game</a> created by Christian T. Petersen. The <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origins_Award" class="extiw" title="w:Origins Award">Origins Award</a>-winning game allows the players to take on the roles of several of the Great Houses vying for control of the Seven Kingdoms, including House Stark, House Lannister, House Baratheon, House Greyjoy, House Tyrell, and as of the expansion <i>A Clash of Kings</i>, House Martell. Players maneuver armies to secure support in the various regions that comprise the Seven Kingdoms, with the goal of capturing enough support to claim the Iron Throne. Two expansions for the game, <i>A Clash of Kings</i> and <i>A Storm of Swords</i> have been released.
 
</p>
 
<h3>Roleplaying Game</h3>
 
<h4> <i>A Game of Thrones Roleplaying Game</i> </h4>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{main|A Game of Thrones (game)}}</span>
 
</p><p>The <i>A Game of Thrones Roleplaying Game</i> (2005), created by the defunct <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guardians_of_Order" class="extiw" title="w:Guardians of Order">Guardians of Order</a> company and published by White Wolf, is a roleplaying game using the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D20_System" class="extiw" title="w:D20 System">d20</a> and the TriStat dX rules systems. The game consists of a single large, full-color rulebook featuring information on role-playing in the Seven Kingdoms and also background information to the series not found in the novels, including a detailed map of the Seven Kingdoms. The game was very well-received and was nominated for several awards, but this was not enough to save its parent company from closure in July 2006.
 
</p>
 
<h4>A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying</h4>
 
<p>On July 28, 2006, George R. R. Martin <a href="http://www.georgerrmartin.com/news.html">confirmed</a> that he had received word from the head of Guardians of Order that the company was folding and that no further releases for the setting would take place. Martin expressed hope that the game might be salvaged by another company, and on April 24, 2007, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Ronin_Publishing" class="extiw" title="w:Green Ronin Publishing">Green Ronin Publishing</a> <a href="http://greenronin.com/2007/04/a_song_of_ice_and_fire_rpg.php">announced</a> they would be producing a new role-playing game titled <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i>. Green Ronin has or will publish the following titles: * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying Quick-Start Rules" (free PDF) (June 21, 2008) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying: Adventures in the Seven Kingdoms" (rulebook) (ISBN 978-1-934547-12-0, 10 March 2009) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Narrator's Kit" (ISBN 978-1-934547-28-1, 21 May 2009) * "Peril at King's Landing" (adventure) (ISBN 978-1-934547-16-8, 13 August 2009) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Campaign Guide" (ISBN 978-1-934547-13-7, 18 February 2010) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying: Pocket Edition" (ISBN 978-1-934547-34-2, 14 September 2010)
 
</p>
 
<h3><i>The Art of Ice and Fire</i></h3>
 
<p>This book, published in 2005 by Fantasy Flight Games, contains numerous works of art inspired by the series from a variety of different artists and illustrators. Some of the art previously appeared in the card game or on-line, but most of it was new. A second volume was released in 2011.
 
</p>
 
<h3>Models and figures</h3>
 
<p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testor_Corporation" class="extiw" title="w:Testor Corporation">Testor Corporation</a> announced that in late 2006 it would begin releasing model figures based on the series, to be followed by a tactical wargame. Only one product shipped, a <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Ruby Ford">Ruby Ford</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/diorama" class="extiw" title="w:diorama">diorama</a>. In April 2007, Martin announced that the licensing agreement with Testor had expired, and Testor's <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i> product lines had been canceled.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">{{cite web |last=Martin |first=George R. R. |url=http://www.georgerrmartin.com/archive07.html#04-17b |title=Testor's miniatures cancelled |work=George R. R. Martin's Official Website |date=2007-04-17 |accessdate=2007-07-24 }}</span> In December 2006, Haute Productions signed a deal to release a range of resin mini-busts featuring characters from <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i> under the name Valyrian Resin. The company plans to expand the line to include resin statues and pewter chess sets.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">{{cite web |last=Martin |first=George R. R. |url=http://www.georgerrmartin.com/archive06.html#12-07 |title=&quot;Valyrian Resin&quot; to produce ''Ice &amp; Fire'' mini-busts |work=George R. R. Martin's Official Website |date=2006-12-06 |accessdate=2007-07-24 }}</span> On August 13, 2007, Dark Sword Miniatures announced a line of premium pewter miniatures based on the world of George R. R. Martin's <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i> and sculpted by renowned miniatures artist Tom Meier.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">{{cite web |url=http://www.darkswordminiatures.com/gallery/GRRMline.htm |title=Dark Sword Miniatures and Tom Meier to produce George Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire premium miniature line |work=Dark Sword Miniatures Website |date=2007-08-13 |accessdate=2007-08-28 }}</span>
 
</p>
 
<h3>Computer games</h3>
 
<p>On May 13, 2009, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanide_(studio)" class="extiw" title="w:Cyanide (studio)">Cyanide Studio</a> announced they will be developing a series of video games based on <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i> for the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_computer_game" class="extiw" title="w:Personal computer game">PC</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_video_game_consoles_(seventh_generation)" class="extiw" title="w:History of video game consoles (seventh generation)">consoles</a>.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[[w:Gaming Target|Gaming Target]]. (05-13-09). [http://www.gamingtarget.com/article.php?artid=9793 George R.R Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire to become a video game series]</span> Martin has since revealed that both an <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-time_strategy" class="extiw" title="w:Real-time strategy">RTS</a> and an <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/role-playing_video_game" class="extiw" title="w:role-playing video game">role-playing video game</a> game are currently in development.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[[w:Not A Blog|Not A Blog]]. (06-08-09). [http://grrm.livejournal.com/90917.html Videogame Rights Optioned]</span><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref"> (05-13-09). [http://www.gamingtarget.com/article.php?artid=9793 George R.R Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire to become a video game series]</span> Martin has since revealed that both an <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-time_strategy" class="extiw" title="w:Real-time strategy">RTS</a> and an <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/role-playing_video_game" class="extiw" title="w:role-playing video game">RTENOTITLE</a> game are currently in development.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[[w:Not A Blog|Not A Blog]]. (06-08-09). [http://grrm.livejournal.com/90917.html Videogame Rights Optioned]</span>
 
</p><p><i>Blood of Dragons</i> is an online, text-based <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role-playing_game" class="extiw" title="w:Role-playing game">roleplaying</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MUSH" class="extiw" title="w:MUSH">MUSH</a> and the only online game specifically authorized by the author.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[http://www.westeros.org/BoD/FAQ/Entry/3120/ ''Blood of Dragons MUSH'' FAQ]</span> <i>Blood of Dragons</i> fully opened in 2007 and is set approximately 140 years prior to the initial series, during the reign of Daeron I and his conquest of Dorne. The game is maintained by the administrators of Westeros.org, who are collaborating with Martin on <i>The World of Ice and Fire</i>.
 
</p><p>Several unofficial fan-created <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mod_(computer_gaming)" class="extiw" title="w:Mod (computer gaming)">mods</a> have been created, however, for games such as <i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_and_Blade" class="extiw" title="w:Mount and Blade">Mount and Blade</a></i>, <i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome:_Total_War" class="extiw" title="w:Rome: Total War">Rome: Total War</a></i>, <i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusader_Kings" class="extiw" title="w:Crusader Kings">Crusader Kings</a></i>, and <i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neverwinter_Nights" class="extiw" title="w:Neverwinter Nights">Neverwinter Nights</a></i>.
 
</p>
 
<h3><i>The World of Ice and Fire</i></h3>
 
<p>A companion volume for the series, provisionally known as a 'world book', is in development by George R. R. Martin and co-authors Elio M. García, Jr. and Linda Antonsson, although no publication date has been announced as yet. García and Antonsson run the largest <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i> community on the web and assisted in the writing of the roleplaying game. The companion volume was given the working title <i>The World of Ice and Fire</i> at the 2006 Worldcon, during a discussion between the writers. They confirmed that the book will open with a historical overview of the setting, have a 'who's who' of characters and have a large amount of heraldry and at least the Targaryen family tree, possibly more. The book will also contain a large amount of artwork and will be published after <i>A Dance with Dragons</i> is released.<a href="http://www.hippoiathanatoi.com/Memoirs/Entry/1688/">[n]</a> The artist <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Nasmith" class="extiw" title="w:Ted Nasmith">Ted Nasmith</a>, best known for his work on illustrated editions of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._R._R._Tolkien" class="extiw" title="w:J. R. R. Tolkien">J. R. R. Tolkien</a> books, has been asked to do some landscape and castle portraits for the book. In his correspondence with the publishers, Nasmith was told that the target release date was spring 2008 <a href="http://www.tednasmith.com/blog/2006/11/long_time_no_post--sorry_friends.html">[n]</a>.
 
</p>
 
<h3>Weapon Replicas</h3>
 
<p>On March 20, 2007, George R. R. Martin announced on his blog<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[http://grrm.livejournal.com/14144.html Not A Blog - Nothing Holds an Edge Like Valyrian Steel&lt;!-- Bot generated title --&gt;]</span> that he had "signed a deal with Jalic, Inc of East Lansing, Michigan, granting them a license to manufacture and sell full-sized high-quality replicas of the arms and armor from <i>A Song of Ice and Fire</i>", under the name Valyrian Steel,<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[http://www.valyriansteel.com/ Valyrian Steel - Swords from George R.R. Martin's &quot;A Song of Ice and Fire&quot;&lt;!-- Bot generated title --&gt;]</span> starting with the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bastard_sword" class="extiw" title="w:bastard sword">bastard sword</a> <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Longclaw">Longclaw</a> wielded by <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Jon Snow">Jon Snow</a>.  As of early 2009, Jalic has had <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Arya Stark">Arya Stark</a>'s <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Needle">Needle</a> from "A Song of Ice and Fire" on pre-sale.  Both Needle and Longclaw are currently listed and available in a Limited Edition of 2,500 each.
 
</p>
 
<h2>Pronunciation of names</h2>
 
<p>Unlike J. R. R. Tolkien, who provided detailed instructions for the pronunciation of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/languages_of_Middle-earth" class="extiw" title="w:languages of Middle-earth">languages of Middle-earth</a>, Martin has provided no canonical way of pronouncing Westerosi names, stating "You can pronounce it however you like." <span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">[http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM03k.html So Spake Martin Report #107]</span> However, it is possible to establish some guidelines based on authorial chapter readings and question-and-answer sessions (marked "GRRM" in the following list), and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/audio_book" class="extiw" title="w:audio book">audio book</a> adaptations read by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Dotrice" class="extiw" title="w:Roy Dotrice">Roy Dotrice</a> ("RD") and John Lee ("JL").  Among the multimedia clips of the author speaking, RH indicates the Random House audio interview <span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Random House audio interview with GRRM. [http://a1018.g.akamai.net/f/1018/19019/1d/randomhouse1.download.akamai.com/19019/GeorgeRRMartinInterview.mp3] �UNIQ5cb66c0b5ee762cd-HTMLCommentStrip7f6b23883a3eac4900000001</span> and FF indicates the Fast Forward television interview.<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Fast Forward video interview with GRRM. [http://www.fast-forward.tv/archive/archive.htm]</span> Entries marked with a question mark (?) are probably the pronunciations of RD and/or JL.
 
</p><p>The list uses International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols. See <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPA_chart_for_English" class="extiw" title="w:IPA chart for English">IPA chart for English</a> to learn about the symbols, and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet" class="extiw" title="w:International Phonetic Alphabet">IPA</a> article proper for the problems of displaying and entering them.
 
</p>
 
<h4>Characters</h4>
 
<ul><li><b>Areo Hotah</b> GRRM-CBC [{{IPA|'ɑriəʊ həʊ'tɑː}}], sometimes [{{IPA|'həʊtɑ}}]
 
</li><li><b>Arya</b> GRRM-FF [{{IPA|'ɑɹiə}}], like English <i>aria</i>
 
</li><li><b>Bran</b> GRRM-FF [{{IPA|bɹæn}}], like English <i>bran</i>
 
</li><li><b>Brienne</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|bɹi'ɛni}}]. RD, JL: [{{IPA|brʌɪ'i:n}}].
 
</li><li><b>Caleotte</b> GRRM-CBC: [{{IPA|'kælɪɒt}}])
 
</li><li><b>Catelyn</b> (?: [{{IPA|'katlɪn}}])
 
</li><li><b>Cersei</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'sɝseɪ}}]. RD [{{IPA|'sə:sɪ}}]. JL [{{IPA|'sɪəseɪ}}].
 
</li><li><b>Daenerys</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|dən'ɛɹɪs}}] (?: [{{IPA|deɪ'nɛ:rɪs}}])
 
</li><li><b>Dany</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'dæni}}]
 
</li><li><b>Davos</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'dɑːvos}}]
 
</li><li><b>Doran</b> GRRM-CBC [{{IPA|dəʊ'ræn}}]
 
</li><li><b>Jaime</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'dʒeɪmi}}] (?: [{{IPA|'dʒeɪmɪ}}])
 
</li><li><b>Jojen</b> (?: [{{IPA|'dʒəʊdʒən}}])
 
</li><li><b>Jon</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|dʒɑn}}],  like English <i>John</i>
 
</li><li><b>Lysa</b>  (?: [{{IPA|'laɪsə}}]) <!-- Also, claimed: GRRM: [laɪsɑː] or [laɪzɑ:]. But: (1) where is the stress? (2) reference, please -->
 
</li><li><b>Petyr</b> GRRM<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">GRRM at ''To Be Continued 4'' (Chicago, IL), May 6–8, 2005. [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM03g.html So Spake Martin Report #61]</span> [{{IPA|pi:'tɚ}}], like English <i>Peter</i> but RD: [{{IPA|pɪ'tʌɪə}}]
 
</li><li><b>Rickon</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'ɹɪkɑn}}]
 
</li><li><b>Tommen</b> GRRM-CBC [{{IPA|'toʊmən}}], RD, JL: [{{IPA|'tomən}}]
 
</li><li><b>Tyrion</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'tɪɹiən}}] (?: [{{IPA|'tɪrɪən}}])
 
</li><li><b>Tywin</b> (?: [{{IPA|'tʌɪwɪn}}])
 
</li><li><b>Viserys</b> (?: [{{IPA|vɪ'sɛ:rɪs}}])
 
</li></ul>
 
<h4>Houses and surnames</h4>
 
<ul><li><b><a href="House Baratheon">Baratheon</a></b> (?: [{{IPA|bə'rʌθɪən}}])
 
</li><li><b><a href="House Lannister">Lannister</a></b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'lænɪstɚ}}]
 
</li><li><b><a href="House Stark">Stark</a></b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|stɑɹk}}], like English <i>stark</i>
 
</li><li><b><a href="House Targaryen">Targaryen</a></b>  GRRM-RH [{{IPA|tɑɹ'gɛɹiən}}] (?: [{{IPA|ta'gɛ:rɪən}}])
 
</li></ul>
 
<p>Presumably, bastard names (like <i>Snow</i> and <i>Rivers</i>) are always pronounced like the corresponding common noun.
 
</p>
 
<h4>Places</h4>
 
<ul><li><b>Asshai</b> RD: [{{IPA|a'ʃʌɪ}}]. JL: [{{IPA|'aʃʌɪ}}]
 
</li><li><b>Westeros</b> GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'wɛstɚos}}]
 
</li></ul>
 
<h4>Titles</h4>
 
<ul><li><b>Khaleesi</b> (?: [{{IPA|kə'lɪ:sɪ}}])
 
</li><li><b>Maester</b> (?: [{{IPA|'meɪstə}}])
 
</li><li><b>Ser</b> (?: [{{IPA|sə:}}], like English <i>sir</i>)
 
</li></ul>
 
<h2>Notes</h2>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_references" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="references" />
 
</p>
 
<h2>External links</h2>
 
<ul><li> <a href="http://www.georgerrmartin.com">GeorgeRRMartin.com</a> - George R. R. Martin's website
 
</li><li> <a href="http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/">The Citadel</a> at <a href="http://www.westeros.org">www.westeros.org</a> - extensive archive about the series, including detailed thematic notes, timelines, artwork &amp; <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/heraldry" class="extiw" title="w:heraldry">heraldry</a>, and correspondence from the author
 
</li><li> <a href="http://asoiaf.westeros.org">Westeros Forum</a> - a popular and busy forum based around discussion of the series and its spin-offs
 
</li><li> <a href="http://www.towerofthehand.com">Tower of the Hand: An Encyclopaedia of Ice and Fire</a> - A comprehensive treatment of A Song of Ice and Fire with chapter summaries and individual pages for every character, location, historical event, noble house, etc. from the series all thoroughly cross-referenced and hyperlinked
 
</li><li> <a href="http://www.amok-koma.ru/eng/gal/">Amoka.net Gallery</a> Fan-created portraits and scenes of the Song of Ice and Fire characters
 
</li><li> <a href="http://www.bwbfanclub.com">BwB Fan Club</a> - GRRM fan club
 
</li><li> <a href="http://www.iblist.com/author.php?id=326">IBList</a> - George R. R. Martin's page on the Internet Book List
 
</li><li> <span class="fck_mw_template">{{isfdb series | id=A_Song_of_Ice_and_Fire | title=A Song of Ice and Fire}}</span>
 
</li></ul>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{ASOIAF}}</span>
 
</p>
 
<h2>References and Notes</h2>
 
<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{EnWP|A Song of Ice and Fire}}</span>
 
</p>
 
<!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors -->
 
  
<a href="fr:Le Trône de Fer : présentation générale">fr:Le Trône de Fer : présentation générale</a>
+
==Novels and novellas==
 +
Five of these novels have been completed and published:
 +
 
 +
* ''[[A Game of Thrones]]'' [[w:1996 in literature|(1996)]]
 +
* ''[[A Clash of Kings]]''  [[w:1998 in literature|(1998)]]
 +
* ''[[A Storm of Swords]]'' [[w:2000 in literature|(2000)]]
 +
* ''[[A Feast for Crows]]'' [[w:2005 in books|(2005)]]
 +
* ''[[A Dance with Dragons]]'' [[w:2011 in books|(2011)]]
 +
 
 +
The remaining two novels are provisionally titled:
 +
 
 +
* ''[[The Winds of Winter]]''
 +
* ''[[A Dream of Spring]]'' (formerly known as ''A Time for Wolves'')
 +
 
 +
There are also three prequel novellas to the series, set roughly 90 years before the novels.
 +
 
 +
* ''[[The Hedge Knight]]'' (1998)
 +
* ''[[The Sworn Sword]]'' (2003)
 +
* ''[[The Mystery Knight]]'' (2010)
 +
 
 +
These short stories are commonly known as "Dunk and Egg" stories (after their protagonists). ''The Hedge Knight'' is also available as a graphic novel from [[w:Dabel Brothers Productions|Dabel Brothers Productions]]; an adaptation of ''The Sworn Sword'' is forthcoming from the same company. The author has said that he would like to write a number of these stories (varying from six to twelve from interview to interview) covering the entire lives of these two characters.
 +
 
 +
The series has been placed as the number 1 rated series at the [[w:Bibliographic_database#Internet_Book_List|Internet Book List]] since a revision of the rating system in October 2005.<ref>[http://www.iblist.com/list_by_rating.php?type=series list Internet book list rating ASOIAF], retrieved December 20th, 2006</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Themes of the novels==
 +
The books are known for complex characters, sudden and often violent plot twists, and political intrigue. In a genre where [[w:Magic (paranormal)|magic]] usually takes center stage, this series has a reputation for its limited and subtle use of magic, employing it as an ambiguous and often sinister background force.<ref>SFX Magazine #138 feature, Christmas 2005</ref>  Finally, the novels do not (presently) center around a climactic clash between "Good" and "Evil;" plot lines have revolved primarily around political infighting and civil war, with only one or two storyline arcs even suggesting the possibility of an external threat.
 +
 
 +
The novels are narrated from a very strict [[w:third person limited omniscient|third person limited omniscient]] perspective, the chapters alternating between different [[point of view]] characters.  Martin's treatment of his characters makes them extremely hard to classify: very few can be labeled as "good" or "evil".  The author also has a reputation of not being afraid to kill any character, no matter how major.
 +
 
 +
==Storyline overview==
 +
 
 +
'''''A Song of Ice and Fire''''' is set primarily in the fictional Seven Kingdoms of [[Westeros]], a large, South American-sized continent with an ancient history stretching back some twelve thousand years. A detailed history reveals how seven kingdoms came to dominate this continent, and then how these seven nations were united as one by Aegon the Conqueror, of [[House Targaryen]]. Some 283 years after Aegon's conquest, the Targaryens are overthrown in a civil war and King [[Robert Baratheon]], backed primarily by his friend Lord [[Eddard Stark]] and foster father Lord [[Jon Arryn]], takes the Iron Throne. The novels, which begin fifteen years later, follow the fall-out from this event across three major storylines, set not only in Westeros but on the eastern continent as well.
 +
 
 +
The first storyline, set in the Seven Kingdoms themselves, chronicles a many-sided struggle for the Iron Throne that develops after King Robert's death. The throne is claimed by his son [[Joffrey Baratheon|Joffrey]], supported by his mother's powerful family, [[House Lannister]], but Robert's brother [[Stannis Baratheon|Stannis]] claims that Robert's children are illegitimate, and claims the throne himself, to a less-than-enthusiastic response. Robert's youngest brother, [[Renly Baratheon|Renly]], also claims the throne with the support of the extremely powerful [[House Tyrell]]. Whilst these three claimants battle for the throne itself, [[Robb Stark]], Lord Eddard Stark's heir, is proclaimed King in the North as the northmen and their allies in the Riverlands seek to break away from the Iron Throne and rule themselves. Similarly, [[Balon Greyjoy]] also claims the throne of his own region, the Iron Islands, and likewise seeks independence.  The War of the Five Kings is the principal storyline  in the second and third novels, with its fall-out and repercussions affecting much of what follows.
 +
 
 +
The second storyline is set on the extreme northern border of Westeros. Here, eight thousand years ago, a huge wall of ice and gravel was constructed by spells and by hand to defend Westeros from the threat of '[[The Others]]', a semi-mythical race of ice creatures living in the uttermost north. The 300-mile-long, 700-foot-tall Wall is defended by the Sworn Brotherhood of the [[Night's Watch]], which by the time of the novels is badly under-strength and under threat by the human 'wildlings' or 'free folk' who live to the north. This storyline strand follows [[Jon Snow]], [[bastardy|bastard]] son of Lord [[Eddard Stark]], as he rises through the ranks of the Watch and learns the true nature of the threat from the north. By the end of the third volume, this storyline has become more entangled with the civil war to the south as well.
 +
 
 +
The third storyline is set on the huge eastern continent and follows the adventures of [[Daenerys Targaryen]], the last (known) scion of [[House Targaryen]] and another claimant to the Iron Throne. Daenerys's story shows her growing rise to power, from a near-penniless wanderer to a powerful and canny ruler who possesses the last living dragons. Though her story is separated from the others by many thousands of miles, her stated goal is to reclaim the Iron Throne. Although she is not known to many in Westeros, the chaos of two civil wars in rapid succession has led to much yearning among the smallfolk for the days of stability under the Targaryens. Daenerys' storyline will return her to Westeros before the end of the series.
 +
 
 +
The eponymous Song of Ice and Fire is mentioned only once in the series, in a vision Daenerys sees in ''A Clash of Kings'': "He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire", spoken by a Targaryen (probably Daenerys's dead older brother [[Rhaegar Targaryen]]) about his infant son named Aegon. It is implied that there is a connection between the song, the promise, and Daenerys herself. This is established more clearly in ''A Feast for Crows'', when Aemon Targaryen identifies Daenerys as the heir that was promised. The phrase "ice and fire" is also mentioned in the Reeds' oath of loyalty to Bran in ''A Clash of Kings''. However, the song and the promise are never mentioned again, and the song itself remains a mystery.
 +
 
 +
''See also:'' [[:Category:Characters|List of all characters]]
 +
 
 +
==Historical and literary sources==
 +
Numerous parallels have been seen between the events and characters in ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' and events and people involved in the [[w:Wars of the Roses|Wars of the Roses]]. Two of the principal families in ''A Song of Ice and Fire'', the Starks and the Lannisters, are seen as representing the historical [[w:House of York|House of York]] and [[w:House of Lancaster|House of Lancaster]], respectively.
 +
 
 +
A similar reality-inspired conflict is the succession struggle called the [[Dance of the Dragons]] between two children Aegon II and Rhaenyra.  A historical struggle (labeled [[w:The Anarchy|The Anarchy]]) between [[w:Empress Matilda|Empress Matilda]], daughter of [[w:Henry I of England|Henry I of England]], and her cousin [[w:Stephen of England|Stephen of Blois]], provides the inspiration.  Each daughter is announced as her father's successor, but due to differing reasons, male rivals seize the crown and are anointed as rulers.  During the dynastic struggle, the rival claimants are deposed and succeeded by the son ([[Aegon III]] and Henry II of England respectively) of the original designated heir.  Neither Empress Matilda nor Rhaenyra actually ruled in their own name.
 +
 
 +
Martin is an avid student of medieval Europe, and has said that the Wars of the Roses, along with many other events in Europe during that time, have influenced the series. However, he insists that "there's really no one-for-one character-for-character correspondence. I like to use history to flavor my fantasy, to add texture and verisimilitude, but simply rewriting history with the names changed has no appeal for me. I prefer to re-imagine it all, and take it in new and unexpected directions." <ref>[http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM01.html So Spake Martin Report #1]</ref>
 +
 
 +
Martin has also said the [[w:Albigensian Crusade|Albigensian Crusade]]s are an influence for the series.
 +
 
 +
==Origins of the series==
 +
Although George RR Martin had long had a love of model knights and medieval [[w:history|history]], his early novels and short stories mostly fit into the [[w:science fiction|science fiction]] genre, although eventually several fantasy stories did appear, such as ''The Ice Dragon''. In the mid-1980s, Martin worked mainly in [[w:Hollywood|Hollywood]], principally as a writer or producer on ''[[w:The New Twilight Zone|The New Twilight Zone]]'' and [[w:Beauty and the Beast (TV series)|''Beauty and the Beast'']]. After ''Beauty and the Beast'' ended in 1989 Martin returned to writing prose and started work on a science fiction novel called ''Avalon''. In 1991, whilst struggling with this story, Martin conceived of a scene where several youngsters find a dead direwolf with a stag's antler in its throat. The direwolf has several pups, which are taken by the youngsters to raise as their own. Martin's imagination was fired by this idea and he developed it into an [[w:epic fantasy|epic fantasy]] story, which he envisaged as a trilogy consisting of the books ''A Game of Thrones'', ''A Dance with Dragons'' and ''The Winds of Winter''. Martin had previously apparently not been inspired by the genre, but reading [[w:Tad Williams|Tad Williams]]' ''[[w:Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn|Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn]]'' series had convinced him it could be approached in a more adult and mature way than previous authors.
 +
 
 +
In 1992 he put the book to one side when one of his TV ideas was picked up by Hollywood, resulting in the production of a pilot called ''Doorways''. The pilot was not successful and not picked up for a series.
 +
 
 +
In 1994 Martin resumed work on ''A Game of Thrones'' and completed it the following year, although he was only one-third of the way through his initial plan for the first novel. Martin then expanded the series to four books, and eventually to six. Publication of ''A Game of Thrones'' followed in early 1996. Pre-release publicity included publication of a 'sample novella' called ''Blood of the Dragon''.
 +
 
 +
After expanding the series to four volumes, Martin remarked, "What can I say? It's a BIG story, and a cast of thousands." <ref>Martin in post to ''Legends'', October 6 1998. [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM01.html So Spake Martin – Posts to Legends (SSL)]</ref>
 +
 
 +
After ''A Storm of Swords'' was completed in 2000, Martin began writing ''A Dance with Dragons'', the intended fourth volume which would pick up the story five years after the previous volume. Martin found it difficult to make this work without an over-reliance on flashbacks. At the World Science Fiction Convention in Philadelphia on 1 September 2001, Martin announced that he was scrapping more than a year's work and writing a different fourth book that would fill in the gap, named ''A Feast for Crows''. He found it extremely difficult to go back and start again, especially as this novel was not planned for in his scheme for the series, and work on the book progressed slowly.
 +
 
 +
By May 2005 ''A Feast for Crows'' had become longer than ''A Storm of Swords'' and his publishers said they could not publish the book in one volume. They suggested splitting the book in two and releasing the volumes as ''A Feast for Crows, Volume I'' and ''A Feast for Crows, Volume II'', but Martin was unhappy with this idea. After discussing the matter with his publishers and his friend and fellow writer Daniel Abraham, Martin decided to split the book by character and location instead. The published ''A Feast for Crows'' thus contained all of the characters in the South of the Seven Kingdoms, whilst the forthcoming ''A Dance with Dragons'' will contain the characters in the North, the Free Cities and in Slaver's Bay.
 +
 
 +
In a May 2005 statement, the author also said that this move now meant that the series would require seven volumes. Martin recognized that this decision could cause frustration among some of his fans. He wrote: "I know some of you may be disappointed, especially when you buy ''A Feast for Crows'' and discover that your favorite character does not appear, but given the realities I think this was the best solution... and the more I look at it, the more convinced I am that these two parallel novels, when taken together, will actually tell the story better than one big book." <ref>Message on Martin's website, May 29 2005  [http://www.georgerrmartin.com/done.html It's Done!!!]</ref>
 +
 
 +
Despite the problems, ''A Feast for Crows'' was released in October 2005 and immediately won largely positive reviews. ''Time Magazine'' dubbed Martin, "The American [[w:J. R. R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]"[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1129596,00.html], and the novel went straight to the top of the ''New York Times'' bestseller list.
 +
 
 +
On January 24, 2006, Martin updated a statement on his personal site to note that he had completed 542 of an estimated 1200-1300 manuscript pages for the new book, ''A Dance with Dragons''. In the same statement, he explains that while the fifth book will run in a parallel timeline with the fourth, there is nothing to stop the line from extending further; hinting that if room remains, he will include chapters for some of the characters left in a cliffhanger-state at the end of the previous novel.  He rounds out his site update by stating, "And before anyone writes me asking, yes, there is a third Dunk and Egg novella in the works as well. It's maybe three-quarters done, and sometime soon I want to find the time to finish that one too." <ref>Message on Martin's website, January 24 2006 [http://www.georgerrmartin.com/nextbook.html Update]</ref>
 +
 
 +
In a later update, Martin confirmed that the fifth book will be completed in early 2007 for publication in late 2007. He lost some time in writing the book due to a demanding appearances schedule and also due to home renovations.
 +
 
 +
==TV adaptation==
 +
{{Main|Game of Thrones}} In March 2010, [[w:HBO|HBO]] [[w:greenlit]] a television series based on ''A Song of Ice and Fire'', with [[w:David Benioff|David Benioff]] and [[w:D.B. Weiss|Dan Weiss]] attached to write and executive produce.<ref name="THR 2010-03-02">{{cite web |url=http://www.thrfeed.com/2010/03/hbo-greenlights-game-of-thrones-.html  |last=Hibberd |first=James |publisher=THRfeed.com |title=HBO  greenlights ''Game of Thrones'' to series  |date=March 2, 2010 |accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</ref>  Called ''[[Game of Thrones]]'', it stars [[w:Sean Bean|Sean Bean]], [[w:Peter Dinklage|Peter Dinklage]], and [[w:Lena Headey|Lena Headey]].<ref name="SciFi 2010-03-02"/><ref  name="Variety 2010-03-02">{{cite news|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118015939.html?categoryid=14&cs=1&query=george+R.+R.+martin  |last=Levine |first=Stuart |publisher=Variety.com |title=HBO greenlights ''Game of Thrones'' |date=March 2,  2010|accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</ref>  The series will cover one novel's worth of material per season,<ref name="variety2007-01"/> and premiered on April 17, 2011.<ref>http://www.hbo.com/game-of-thrones/index.html</ref>  Game of Thrones has been extremely well received critically, and has garnered a loyal fanbase. On April 19, 2011, after airing only one episode, HBO announced that it had renewed Game of Thrones for a second season.<ref>http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2011/04/19/hbo-renews-game-of-thrones-for-second-season-premiere-grossed-4-2-million-on-hbo-sunday-night/89922</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Spin-offs==
 +
In addition to the novels and novellas, there are number of other products inspired by the series.
 +
 
 +
===Related publications===
 +
Some of the novels' chapters have appeared previously in collected form in other outlets.
 +
* ''Blood of the Dragon'' ([[w:Asimov's Science Fiction|Asimov’s]], July 1996) based on the ''Daenerys'' chapters from ''A Game of Thrones''. Received the 1997 [[w:Hugo Award for Best Novella|Hugo Award for Best Novella]].
 +
* ''Path of the Dragon'' ([[w:Asimov's Science Fiction|Asimov’s]], December 2000) based on the ''Daenerys'' chapters from ''A Storm of Swords''.
 +
* ''Arms of the Kraken'' ([[w:Dragon (magazine)|Dragon]] issue 305, August 2002) based on the Iron Islands chapters from ''A Feast for Crows''.
 +
 
 +
===''A Game of Thrones collectible card game''===
 +
{{main|A Game of Thrones collectible card game}}
 +
 
 +
This is a collectible card game (CCG) produced by [[w:Fantasy Flight Games|Fantasy Flight Games]]. A number of base sets have been released for the game, each with a number of expansions. The game's primary designer is Eric Lang and the lead developer is Nate French. The ''A Game of Thrones: Westeros Edition'' won the Origins Award for ''Best Trading Card Game of 2002''. The ''Game of Thrones: Ice and Fire Edition'' won the Origins Award for ''Best Card Game Expansion or Supplement of 2003''. It is an ongoing project consisting of five editions and eight expansions to date.
 +
 
 +
===''A Game of Thrones Board Game''===
 +
{{main|A Game of Thrones (board game)}}
 +
 
 +
In 2003, [[w:Fantasy Flight Games|Fantasy Flight Games]] released the ''A Game of Thrones'' [[w:German-style board game|strategy board game]] created by Christian T. Petersen. The [[w:Origins Award|Origins Award]]-winning game allows the players to take on the roles of several of the Great Houses vying for control of the Seven Kingdoms, including House Stark, House Lannister, House Baratheon, House Greyjoy, House Tyrell, and as of the expansion ''A Clash of Kings'', House Martell. Players maneuver armies to secure support in the various regions that comprise the Seven Kingdoms, with the goal of capturing enough support to claim the Iron Throne. Two expansions for the game, ''A Clash of Kings'' and ''A Storm of Swords'' have been released.
 +
 
 +
===Roleplaying Game===
 +
==== ''A Game of Thrones Roleplaying Game'' ====
 +
 
 +
{{main|A Game of Thrones (game)}}
 +
 
 +
The ''A Game of Thrones Roleplaying Game'' (2005), created by the defunct [[w:Guardians%20of%20Order|Guardians of Order]] company and published by White Wolf, is a roleplaying game using the [[w:D20%20System|d20]] and the TriStat dX rules systems. The game consists of a single large, full-color rulebook featuring information on role-playing in the Seven Kingdoms and also background information to the series not found in the novels, including a detailed map of the Seven Kingdoms. The game was very well-received and was nominated for several awards, but this was not enough to save its parent company from closure in July 2006.
 +
====A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying====
 +
On July 28, 2006, George R. R. Martin [http://www.georgerrmartin.com/news.html confirmed] that he had received word from the head of Guardians of Order that the company was folding and that no further releases for the setting would take place. Martin expressed hope that the game might be salvaged by another company, and on April 24, 2007, [[w:Green Ronin Publishing|Green Ronin Publishing]] [http://greenronin.com/2007/04/a_song_of_ice_and_fire_rpg.php announced] they would be producing a new role-playing game titled ''A Song of Ice and Fire''. Green Ronin has or will publish the following titles: * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying Quick-Start Rules" (free PDF) (June 21, 2008) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying: Adventures in the Seven Kingdoms" (rulebook) (ISBN 978-1-934547-12-0, 10 March 2009) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Narrator's Kit" (ISBN 978-1-934547-28-1, 21 May 2009) * "Peril at King's Landing" (adventure) (ISBN 978-1-934547-16-8, 13 August 2009) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Campaign Guide" (ISBN 978-1-934547-13-7, 18 February 2010) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying: Pocket Edition" (ISBN 978-1-934547-34-2, 14 September 2010)
 +
 
 +
===''The Art of Ice and Fire''===
 +
This book, published in 2005 by Fantasy Flight Games, contains numerous works of art inspired by the series from a variety of different artists and illustrators. Some of the art previously appeared in the card game or on-line, but most of it was new. A second volume was released in 2011.
 +
 
 +
===Models and figures===
 +
[[w:Testor Corporation|Testor Corporation]] announced that in late 2006 it would begin releasing model figures based on the series, to be followed by a tactical wargame. Only one product shipped, a [[Ruby Ford]] [[w:diorama|diorama]]. In April 2007, Martin announced that the licensing agreement with Testor had expired, and Testor's ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' product lines had been canceled.<ref>{{cite web |last=Martin |first=George R. R. |url=http://www.georgerrmartin.com/archive07.html#04-17b |title=Testor's miniatures cancelled |work=George R. R. Martin's Official Website |date=2007-04-17 |accessdate=2007-07-24 }}</ref> In December 2006, Haute Productions signed a deal to release a range of resin mini-busts featuring characters from ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' under the name Valyrian Resin. The company plans to expand the line to include resin statues and pewter chess sets.<ref>{{cite web |last=Martin |first=George R. R. |url=http://www.georgerrmartin.com/archive06.html#12-07 |title="Valyrian Resin" to produce ''Ice & Fire'' mini-busts |work=George R. R. Martin's Official Website |date=2006-12-06 |accessdate=2007-07-24 }}</ref> On August 13, 2007, Dark Sword Miniatures announced a line of premium pewter miniatures based on the world of George R. R. Martin's ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' and sculpted by renowned miniatures artist Tom Meier.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.darkswordminiatures.com/gallery/GRRMline.htm |title=Dark Sword Miniatures and Tom Meier to produce George Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire premium miniature line |work=Dark Sword Miniatures Website |date=2007-08-13 |accessdate=2007-08-28 }}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Computer games===
 +
On May 13, 2009, [[w:Cyanide (studio)|Cyanide Studio]] announced they will be developing a series of video games based on ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' for the [[w:Personal computer game|PC]] and [[w:History of video game consoles (seventh generation)|consoles]].<ref>[[w:Gaming Target|Gaming Target]]. (05-13-09). [http://www.gamingtarget.com/article.php?artid=9793 George R.R Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire to become a video game series]</ref> Martin has since revealed that both an [[w:Real-time strategy|RTS]] and an [[w:role-playing video game|role-playing video game]] game are currently in development.<ref>[[w:Not A Blog|Not A Blog]]. (06-08-09). [http://grrm.livejournal.com/90917.html Videogame Rights Optioned]</ref><ref> (05-13-09). [http://www.gamingtarget.com/article.php?artid=9793 George R.R Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire to become a video game series]</ref> Martin has since revealed that both an [[w:Real-time strategy|RTS]] and an [[w:role-playing video game]] game are currently in development.<ref>[[w:Not A Blog|Not A Blog]]. (06-08-09). [http://grrm.livejournal.com/90917.html Videogame Rights Optioned]</ref>
 +
 
 +
''Blood of Dragons'' is an online, text-based [[w:Role-playing game|roleplaying]] [[w:MUSH|MUSH]] and the only online game specifically authorized by the author.<ref>[http://www.westeros.org/BoD/FAQ/Entry/3120/ ''Blood of Dragons MUSH'' FAQ]</ref> ''Blood of Dragons'' fully opened in 2007 and is set approximately 140 years prior to the initial series, during the reign of Daeron I and his conquest of Dorne. The game is maintained by the administrators of Westeros.org, who are collaborating with Martin on ''The World of Ice and Fire''.
 +
 
 +
Several unofficial fan-created [[w:Mod (computer gaming)|mods]] have been created, however, for games such as ''[[w:Mount and Blade|Mount and Blade]]'', ''[[w:Rome: Total War|Rome: Total War]]'', ''[[w:Crusader Kings|Crusader Kings]]'', and ''[[w:Neverwinter Nights|Neverwinter Nights]]''.
 +
 
 +
===''The World of Ice and Fire''===
 +
A companion volume for the series, provisionally known as a 'world book', is in development by George R. R. Martin and co-authors Elio M. García, Jr. and Linda Antonsson, although no publication date has been announced as yet. García and Antonsson run the largest ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' community on the web and assisted in the writing of the roleplaying game. The companion volume was given the working title ''The World of Ice and Fire'' at the 2006 Worldcon, during a discussion between the writers. They confirmed that the book will open with a historical overview of the setting, have a 'who's who' of characters and have a large amount of heraldry and at least the Targaryen family tree, possibly more. The book will also contain a large amount of artwork and will be published after ''A Dance with Dragons'' is released.[http://www.hippoiathanatoi.com/Memoirs/Entry/1688/] The artist [[w:Ted Nasmith|Ted Nasmith]], best known for his work on illustrated editions of [[w:J. R. R. Tolkien|J. R. R. Tolkien]] books, has been asked to do some landscape and castle portraits for the book. In his correspondence with the publishers, Nasmith was told that the target release date was spring 2008 [http://www.tednasmith.com/blog/2006/11/long_time_no_post--sorry_friends.html].
 +
 
 +
===Weapon Replicas===
 +
On March 20, 2007, George R. R. Martin announced on his blog<ref>[http://grrm.livejournal.com/14144.html Not A Blog - Nothing Holds an Edge Like Valyrian Steel<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> that he had "signed a deal with Jalic, Inc of East Lansing, Michigan, granting them a license to manufacture and sell full-sized high-quality replicas of the arms and armor from ''A Song of Ice and Fire''", under the name Valyrian Steel,<ref>[http://www.valyriansteel.com/ Valyrian Steel - Swords from George R.R. Martin's "A Song of Ice and Fire"<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> starting with the [[w:bastard sword|bastard sword]] [[Longclaw]] wielded by [[Jon Snow]].  As of early 2009, Jalic has had [[Arya Stark]]'s [[Needle]] from "A Song of Ice and Fire" on pre-sale.  Both Needle and Longclaw are currently listed and available in a Limited Edition of 2,500 each.
 +
 
 +
==Pronunciation of names==
 +
Unlike J. R. R. Tolkien, who provided detailed instructions for the pronunciation of the [[w:languages of Middle-earth|languages of Middle-earth]], Martin has provided no canonical way of pronouncing Westerosi names, stating "You can pronounce it however you like." <ref>[http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM03k.html So Spake Martin Report #107]</ref> However, it is possible to establish some guidelines based on authorial chapter readings and question-and-answer sessions (marked "GRRM" in the following list), and the [[w:audio book|audio book]] adaptations read by [[w:Roy Dotrice|Roy Dotrice]] ("RD") and John Lee ("JL").  Among the multimedia clips of the author speaking, RH indicates the Random House audio interview <ref>Random House audio interview with GRRM. [http://a1018.g.akamai.net/f/1018/19019/1d/randomhouse1.download.akamai.com/19019/GeorgeRRMartinInterview.mp3] �UNIQ5cb66c0b5ee762cd-HTMLCommentStrip7f6b23883a3eac4900000001</ref> and FF indicates the Fast Forward television interview.<ref>Fast Forward video interview with GRRM. [http://www.fast-forward.tv/archive/archive.htm]</ref> Entries marked with a question mark (?) are probably the pronunciations of RD and/or JL.
 +
 
 +
The list uses International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols. See [[w:IPA chart for English|IPA chart for English]] to learn about the symbols, and the [[w:International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]] article proper for the problems of displaying and entering them.
 +
 
 +
====Characters====
 +
*'''Areo Hotah''' GRRM-CBC [{{IPA|'ɑriəʊ həʊ'tɑː}}], sometimes [{{IPA|'həʊtɑ}}]
 +
*'''Arya''' GRRM-FF [{{IPA|'ɑɹiə}}], like English ''aria''
 +
*'''Bran''' GRRM-FF [{{IPA|bɹæn}}], like English ''bran''
 +
*'''Brienne''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|bɹi'ɛni}}]. RD, JL: [{{IPA|brʌɪ'i:n}}].
 +
*'''Caleotte''' GRRM-CBC: [{{IPA|'kælɪɒt}}])
 +
*'''Catelyn''' (?: [{{IPA|'katlɪn}}])
 +
*'''Cersei''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'sɝseɪ}}]. RD [{{IPA|'sə:sɪ}}]. JL [{{IPA|'sɪəseɪ}}].
 +
*'''Daenerys''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|dən'ɛɹɪs}}] (?: [{{IPA|deɪ'nɛ:rɪs}}])
 +
*'''Dany''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'dæni}}]
 +
*'''Davos''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'dɑːvos}}]
 +
*'''Doran''' GRRM-CBC [{{IPA|dəʊ'ræn}}]
 +
*'''Jaime''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'dʒeɪmi}}] (?: [{{IPA|'dʒeɪmɪ}}])
 +
*'''Jojen''' (?: [{{IPA|'dʒəʊdʒən}}])
 +
*'''Jon''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|dʒɑn}}],  like English ''John''
 +
*'''Lysa'''  (?: [{{IPA|'laɪsə}}]) <!-- Also, claimed: GRRM: [laɪsɑː] or [laɪzɑ:]. But: (1) where is the stress? (2) reference, please -->
 +
*'''Petyr''' GRRM<ref>GRRM at ''To Be Continued 4'' (Chicago, IL), May 6–8, 2005. [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/SSM/SSM03g.html So Spake Martin Report #61]</ref> [{{IPA|pi:'tɚ}}], like English ''Peter'' but RD: [{{IPA|pɪ'tʌɪə}}]
 +
*'''Rickon''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'ɹɪkɑn}}]
 +
*'''Tommen''' GRRM-CBC [{{IPA|'toʊmən}}], RD, JL: [{{IPA|'tomən}}]
 +
*'''Tyrion''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'tɪɹiən}}] (?: [{{IPA|'tɪrɪən}}])
 +
*'''Tywin''' (?: [{{IPA|'tʌɪwɪn}}])
 +
*'''Viserys''' (?: [{{IPA|vɪ'sɛ:rɪs}}])
 +
 
 +
====Houses and surnames====
 +
*'''[[House Baratheon|Baratheon]]''' (?: [{{IPA|bə'rʌθɪən}}])
 +
*'''[[House Lannister|Lannister]]''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'lænɪstɚ}}]
 +
*'''[[House Stark|Stark]]''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|stɑɹk}}], like English ''stark''
 +
*'''[[House Targaryen|Targaryen]]'''  GRRM-RH [{{IPA|tɑɹ'gɛɹiən}}] (?: [{{IPA|ta'gɛ:rɪən}}])
 +
Presumably, bastard names (like ''Snow'' and ''Rivers'') are always pronounced like the corresponding common noun.
 +
 
 +
====Places====
 +
*'''Asshai''' RD: [{{IPA|a'ʃʌɪ}}]. JL: [{{IPA|'aʃʌɪ}}]
 +
*'''Westeros''' GRRM-RH [{{IPA|'wɛstɚos}}]
 +
 
 +
====Titles====
 +
*'''Khaleesi''' (?: [{{IPA|kə'lɪ:sɪ}}])
 +
*'''Maester''' (?: [{{IPA|'meɪstə}}])
 +
*'''Ser''' (?: [{{IPA|sə:}}], like English ''sir'')
 +
 
 +
==Notes==
 +
<references />
 +
 
 +
==External links==
 +
* [http://www.georgerrmartin.com GeorgeRRMartin.com] - George R. R. Martin's website
 +
* [http://www.westeros.org/Citadel/ The Citadel] at [http://www.westeros.org www.westeros.org] - extensive archive about the series, including detailed thematic notes, timelines, artwork & [[w:heraldry|heraldry]], and correspondence from the author
 +
* [http://asoiaf.westeros.org Westeros Forum] - a popular and busy forum based around discussion of the series and its spin-offs
 +
* [http://www.towerofthehand.com Tower of the Hand: An Encyclopaedia of Ice and Fire] - A comprehensive treatment of A Song of Ice and Fire with chapter summaries and individual pages for every character, location, historical event, noble house, etc. from the series all thoroughly cross-referenced and hyperlinked
 +
* [http://www.amok-koma.ru/eng/gal/ Amoka.net Gallery] Fan-created portraits and scenes of the Song of Ice and Fire characters
 +
* [http://www.bwbfanclub.com BwB Fan Club] - GRRM fan club
 +
* [http://www.iblist.com/author.php?id=326 IBList] - George R. R. Martin's page on the Internet Book List
 +
* {{isfdb series | id=A_Song_of_Ice_and_Fire | title=A Song of Ice and Fire}}
 +
{{ASOIAF}}
 +
 
 +
==References and Notes==
 +
{{EnWP|A Song of Ice and Fire}}
 +
 
 +
[[fr:Le Trône de Fer : présentation générale]]

Revision as of 14:50, 14 July 2011

A Song of Ice and Fire (commonly abbreviated as ASoIaF) is a series of epic fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin. According to the author, the series will consist of seven novels.

Novels and novellas

Five of these novels have been completed and published:

The remaining two novels are provisionally titled:

There are also three prequel novellas to the series, set roughly 90 years before the novels.

These short stories are commonly known as "Dunk and Egg" stories (after their protagonists). The Hedge Knight is also available as a graphic novel from Dabel Brothers Productions; an adaptation of The Sworn Sword is forthcoming from the same company. The author has said that he would like to write a number of these stories (varying from six to twelve from interview to interview) covering the entire lives of these two characters.

The series has been placed as the number 1 rated series at the Internet Book List since a revision of the rating system in October 2005.[1]

Themes of the novels

The books are known for complex characters, sudden and often violent plot twists, and political intrigue. In a genre where magic usually takes center stage, this series has a reputation for its limited and subtle use of magic, employing it as an ambiguous and often sinister background force.[2] Finally, the novels do not (presently) center around a climactic clash between "Good" and "Evil;" plot lines have revolved primarily around political infighting and civil war, with only one or two storyline arcs even suggesting the possibility of an external threat.

The novels are narrated from a very strict third person limited omniscient perspective, the chapters alternating between different point of view characters. Martin's treatment of his characters makes them extremely hard to classify: very few can be labeled as "good" or "evil". The author also has a reputation of not being afraid to kill any character, no matter how major.

Storyline overview

A Song of Ice and Fire is set primarily in the fictional Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, a large, South American-sized continent with an ancient history stretching back some twelve thousand years. A detailed history reveals how seven kingdoms came to dominate this continent, and then how these seven nations were united as one by Aegon the Conqueror, of House Targaryen. Some 283 years after Aegon's conquest, the Targaryens are overthrown in a civil war and King Robert Baratheon, backed primarily by his friend Lord Eddard Stark and foster father Lord Jon Arryn, takes the Iron Throne. The novels, which begin fifteen years later, follow the fall-out from this event across three major storylines, set not only in Westeros but on the eastern continent as well.

The first storyline, set in the Seven Kingdoms themselves, chronicles a many-sided struggle for the Iron Throne that develops after King Robert's death. The throne is claimed by his son Joffrey, supported by his mother's powerful family, House Lannister, but Robert's brother Stannis claims that Robert's children are illegitimate, and claims the throne himself, to a less-than-enthusiastic response. Robert's youngest brother, Renly, also claims the throne with the support of the extremely powerful House Tyrell. Whilst these three claimants battle for the throne itself, Robb Stark, Lord Eddard Stark's heir, is proclaimed King in the North as the northmen and their allies in the Riverlands seek to break away from the Iron Throne and rule themselves. Similarly, Balon Greyjoy also claims the throne of his own region, the Iron Islands, and likewise seeks independence. The War of the Five Kings is the principal storyline in the second and third novels, with its fall-out and repercussions affecting much of what follows.

The second storyline is set on the extreme northern border of Westeros. Here, eight thousand years ago, a huge wall of ice and gravel was constructed by spells and by hand to defend Westeros from the threat of 'The Others', a semi-mythical race of ice creatures living in the uttermost north. The 300-mile-long, 700-foot-tall Wall is defended by the Sworn Brotherhood of the Night's Watch, which by the time of the novels is badly under-strength and under threat by the human 'wildlings' or 'free folk' who live to the north. This storyline strand follows Jon Snow, bastard son of Lord Eddard Stark, as he rises through the ranks of the Watch and learns the true nature of the threat from the north. By the end of the third volume, this storyline has become more entangled with the civil war to the south as well.

The third storyline is set on the huge eastern continent and follows the adventures of Daenerys Targaryen, the last (known) scion of House Targaryen and another claimant to the Iron Throne. Daenerys's story shows her growing rise to power, from a near-penniless wanderer to a powerful and canny ruler who possesses the last living dragons. Though her story is separated from the others by many thousands of miles, her stated goal is to reclaim the Iron Throne. Although she is not known to many in Westeros, the chaos of two civil wars in rapid succession has led to much yearning among the smallfolk for the days of stability under the Targaryens. Daenerys' storyline will return her to Westeros before the end of the series.

The eponymous Song of Ice and Fire is mentioned only once in the series, in a vision Daenerys sees in A Clash of Kings: "He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire", spoken by a Targaryen (probably Daenerys's dead older brother Rhaegar Targaryen) about his infant son named Aegon. It is implied that there is a connection between the song, the promise, and Daenerys herself. This is established more clearly in A Feast for Crows, when Aemon Targaryen identifies Daenerys as the heir that was promised. The phrase "ice and fire" is also mentioned in the Reeds' oath of loyalty to Bran in A Clash of Kings. However, the song and the promise are never mentioned again, and the song itself remains a mystery.

See also: List of all characters

Historical and literary sources

Numerous parallels have been seen between the events and characters in A Song of Ice and Fire and events and people involved in the Wars of the Roses. Two of the principal families in A Song of Ice and Fire, the Starks and the Lannisters, are seen as representing the historical House of York and House of Lancaster, respectively.

A similar reality-inspired conflict is the succession struggle called the Dance of the Dragons between two children Aegon II and Rhaenyra. A historical struggle (labeled The Anarchy) between Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, and her cousin Stephen of Blois, provides the inspiration. Each daughter is announced as her father's successor, but due to differing reasons, male rivals seize the crown and are anointed as rulers. During the dynastic struggle, the rival claimants are deposed and succeeded by the son (Aegon III and Henry II of England respectively) of the original designated heir. Neither Empress Matilda nor Rhaenyra actually ruled in their own name.

Martin is an avid student of medieval Europe, and has said that the Wars of the Roses, along with many other events in Europe during that time, have influenced the series. However, he insists that "there's really no one-for-one character-for-character correspondence. I like to use history to flavor my fantasy, to add texture and verisimilitude, but simply rewriting history with the names changed has no appeal for me. I prefer to re-imagine it all, and take it in new and unexpected directions." [3]

Martin has also said the Albigensian Crusades are an influence for the series.

Origins of the series

Although George RR Martin had long had a love of model knights and medieval history, his early novels and short stories mostly fit into the science fiction genre, although eventually several fantasy stories did appear, such as The Ice Dragon. In the mid-1980s, Martin worked mainly in Hollywood, principally as a writer or producer on The New Twilight Zone and Beauty and the Beast. After Beauty and the Beast ended in 1989 Martin returned to writing prose and started work on a science fiction novel called Avalon. In 1991, whilst struggling with this story, Martin conceived of a scene where several youngsters find a dead direwolf with a stag's antler in its throat. The direwolf has several pups, which are taken by the youngsters to raise as their own. Martin's imagination was fired by this idea and he developed it into an epic fantasy story, which he envisaged as a trilogy consisting of the books A Game of Thrones, A Dance with Dragons and The Winds of Winter. Martin had previously apparently not been inspired by the genre, but reading Tad Williams' Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn series had convinced him it could be approached in a more adult and mature way than previous authors.

In 1992 he put the book to one side when one of his TV ideas was picked up by Hollywood, resulting in the production of a pilot called Doorways. The pilot was not successful and not picked up for a series.

In 1994 Martin resumed work on A Game of Thrones and completed it the following year, although he was only one-third of the way through his initial plan for the first novel. Martin then expanded the series to four books, and eventually to six. Publication of A Game of Thrones followed in early 1996. Pre-release publicity included publication of a 'sample novella' called Blood of the Dragon.

After expanding the series to four volumes, Martin remarked, "What can I say? It's a BIG story, and a cast of thousands." [4]

After A Storm of Swords was completed in 2000, Martin began writing A Dance with Dragons, the intended fourth volume which would pick up the story five years after the previous volume. Martin found it difficult to make this work without an over-reliance on flashbacks. At the World Science Fiction Convention in Philadelphia on 1 September 2001, Martin announced that he was scrapping more than a year's work and writing a different fourth book that would fill in the gap, named A Feast for Crows. He found it extremely difficult to go back and start again, especially as this novel was not planned for in his scheme for the series, and work on the book progressed slowly.

By May 2005 A Feast for Crows had become longer than A Storm of Swords and his publishers said they could not publish the book in one volume. They suggested splitting the book in two and releasing the volumes as A Feast for Crows, Volume I and A Feast for Crows, Volume II, but Martin was unhappy with this idea. After discussing the matter with his publishers and his friend and fellow writer Daniel Abraham, Martin decided to split the book by character and location instead. The published A Feast for Crows thus contained all of the characters in the South of the Seven Kingdoms, whilst the forthcoming A Dance with Dragons will contain the characters in the North, the Free Cities and in Slaver's Bay.

In a May 2005 statement, the author also said that this move now meant that the series would require seven volumes. Martin recognized that this decision could cause frustration among some of his fans. He wrote: "I know some of you may be disappointed, especially when you buy A Feast for Crows and discover that your favorite character does not appear, but given the realities I think this was the best solution... and the more I look at it, the more convinced I am that these two parallel novels, when taken together, will actually tell the story better than one big book." [5]

Despite the problems, A Feast for Crows was released in October 2005 and immediately won largely positive reviews. Time Magazine dubbed Martin, "The American Tolkien"[3], and the novel went straight to the top of the New York Times bestseller list.

On January 24, 2006, Martin updated a statement on his personal site to note that he had completed 542 of an estimated 1200-1300 manuscript pages for the new book, A Dance with Dragons. In the same statement, he explains that while the fifth book will run in a parallel timeline with the fourth, there is nothing to stop the line from extending further; hinting that if room remains, he will include chapters for some of the characters left in a cliffhanger-state at the end of the previous novel. He rounds out his site update by stating, "And before anyone writes me asking, yes, there is a third Dunk and Egg novella in the works as well. It's maybe three-quarters done, and sometime soon I want to find the time to finish that one too." [6]

In a later update, Martin confirmed that the fifth book will be completed in early 2007 for publication in late 2007. He lost some time in writing the book due to a demanding appearances schedule and also due to home renovations.

TV adaptation

In March 2010, HBO w:greenlit a television series based on A Song of Ice and Fire, with David Benioff and Dan Weiss attached to write and executive produce.[7] Called Game of Thrones, it stars Sean Bean, Peter Dinklage, and Lena Headey.[8][9] The series will cover one novel's worth of material per season,[10] and premiered on April 17, 2011.[11] Game of Thrones has been extremely well received critically, and has garnered a loyal fanbase. On April 19, 2011, after airing only one episode, HBO announced that it had renewed Game of Thrones for a second season.[12]

Spin-offs

In addition to the novels and novellas, there are number of other products inspired by the series.

Related publications

Some of the novels' chapters have appeared previously in collected form in other outlets.

  • Blood of the Dragon (Asimov’s, July 1996) based on the Daenerys chapters from A Game of Thrones. Received the 1997 Hugo Award for Best Novella.
  • Path of the Dragon (Asimov’s, December 2000) based on the Daenerys chapters from A Storm of Swords.
  • Arms of the Kraken (Dragon issue 305, August 2002) based on the Iron Islands chapters from A Feast for Crows.

A Game of Thrones collectible card game

This is a collectible card game (CCG) produced by Fantasy Flight Games. A number of base sets have been released for the game, each with a number of expansions. The game's primary designer is Eric Lang and the lead developer is Nate French. The A Game of Thrones: Westeros Edition won the Origins Award for Best Trading Card Game of 2002. The Game of Thrones: Ice and Fire Edition won the Origins Award for Best Card Game Expansion or Supplement of 2003. It is an ongoing project consisting of five editions and eight expansions to date.

A Game of Thrones Board Game

In 2003, Fantasy Flight Games released the A Game of Thrones strategy board game created by Christian T. Petersen. The Origins Award-winning game allows the players to take on the roles of several of the Great Houses vying for control of the Seven Kingdoms, including House Stark, House Lannister, House Baratheon, House Greyjoy, House Tyrell, and as of the expansion A Clash of Kings, House Martell. Players maneuver armies to secure support in the various regions that comprise the Seven Kingdoms, with the goal of capturing enough support to claim the Iron Throne. Two expansions for the game, A Clash of Kings and A Storm of Swords have been released.

Roleplaying Game

A Game of Thrones Roleplaying Game

The A Game of Thrones Roleplaying Game (2005), created by the defunct Guardians of Order company and published by White Wolf, is a roleplaying game using the d20 and the TriStat dX rules systems. The game consists of a single large, full-color rulebook featuring information on role-playing in the Seven Kingdoms and also background information to the series not found in the novels, including a detailed map of the Seven Kingdoms. The game was very well-received and was nominated for several awards, but this was not enough to save its parent company from closure in July 2006.

A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying

On July 28, 2006, George R. R. Martin confirmed that he had received word from the head of Guardians of Order that the company was folding and that no further releases for the setting would take place. Martin expressed hope that the game might be salvaged by another company, and on April 24, 2007, Green Ronin Publishing announced they would be producing a new role-playing game titled A Song of Ice and Fire. Green Ronin has or will publish the following titles: * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying Quick-Start Rules" (free PDF) (June 21, 2008) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying: Adventures in the Seven Kingdoms" (rulebook) (ISBN 978-1-934547-12-0, 10 March 2009) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Narrator's Kit" (ISBN 978-1-934547-28-1, 21 May 2009) * "Peril at King's Landing" (adventure) (ISBN 978-1-934547-16-8, 13 August 2009) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Campaign Guide" (ISBN 978-1-934547-13-7, 18 February 2010) * "A Song of Ice and Fire Roleplaying: Pocket Edition" (ISBN 978-1-934547-34-2, 14 September 2010)

The Art of Ice and Fire

This book, published in 2005 by Fantasy Flight Games, contains numerous works of art inspired by the series from a variety of different artists and illustrators. Some of the art previously appeared in the card game or on-line, but most of it was new. A second volume was released in 2011.

Models and figures

Testor Corporation announced that in late 2006 it would begin releasing model figures based on the series, to be followed by a tactical wargame. Only one product shipped, a Ruby Ford diorama. In April 2007, Martin announced that the licensing agreement with Testor had expired, and Testor's A Song of Ice and Fire product lines had been canceled.[13] In December 2006, Haute Productions signed a deal to release a range of resin mini-busts featuring characters from A Song of Ice and Fire under the name Valyrian Resin. The company plans to expand the line to include resin statues and pewter chess sets.[14] On August 13, 2007, Dark Sword Miniatures announced a line of premium pewter miniatures based on the world of George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire and sculpted by renowned miniatures artist Tom Meier.[15]

Computer games

On May 13, 2009, Cyanide Studio announced they will be developing a series of video games based on A Song of Ice and Fire for the PC and consoles.[16] Martin has since revealed that both an RTS and an role-playing video game game are currently in development.[17][18] Martin has since revealed that both an RTS and an w:role-playing video game game are currently in development.[19]

Blood of Dragons is an online, text-based roleplaying MUSH and the only online game specifically authorized by the author.[20] Blood of Dragons fully opened in 2007 and is set approximately 140 years prior to the initial series, during the reign of Daeron I and his conquest of Dorne. The game is maintained by the administrators of Westeros.org, who are collaborating with Martin on The World of Ice and Fire.

Several unofficial fan-created mods have been created, however, for games such as Mount and Blade, Rome: Total War, Crusader Kings, and Neverwinter Nights.

The World of Ice and Fire

A companion volume for the series, provisionally known as a 'world book', is in development by George R. R. Martin and co-authors Elio M. García, Jr. and Linda Antonsson, although no publication date has been announced as yet. García and Antonsson run the largest A Song of Ice and Fire community on the web and assisted in the writing of the roleplaying game. The companion volume was given the working title The World of Ice and Fire at the 2006 Worldcon, during a discussion between the writers. They confirmed that the book will open with a historical overview of the setting, have a 'who's who' of characters and have a large amount of heraldry and at least the Targaryen family tree, possibly more. The book will also contain a large amount of artwork and will be published after A Dance with Dragons is released.[4] The artist Ted Nasmith, best known for his work on illustrated editions of J. R. R. Tolkien books, has been asked to do some landscape and castle portraits for the book. In his correspondence with the publishers, Nasmith was told that the target release date was spring 2008 [5].

Weapon Replicas

On March 20, 2007, George R. R. Martin announced on his blog[21] that he had "signed a deal with Jalic, Inc of East Lansing, Michigan, granting them a license to manufacture and sell full-sized high-quality replicas of the arms and armor from A Song of Ice and Fire", under the name Valyrian Steel,[22] starting with the bastard sword Longclaw wielded by Jon Snow. As of early 2009, Jalic has had Arya Stark's Needle from "A Song of Ice and Fire" on pre-sale. Both Needle and Longclaw are currently listed and available in a Limited Edition of 2,500 each.

Pronunciation of names

Unlike J. R. R. Tolkien, who provided detailed instructions for the pronunciation of the languages of Middle-earth, Martin has provided no canonical way of pronouncing Westerosi names, stating "You can pronounce it however you like." [23] However, it is possible to establish some guidelines based on authorial chapter readings and question-and-answer sessions (marked "GRRM" in the following list), and the audio book adaptations read by Roy Dotrice ("RD") and John Lee ("JL"). Among the multimedia clips of the author speaking, RH indicates the Random House audio interview [24] and FF indicates the Fast Forward television interview.[25] Entries marked with a question mark (?) are probably the pronunciations of RD and/or JL.

The list uses International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols. See IPA chart for English to learn about the symbols, and the IPA article proper for the problems of displaying and entering them.

Characters

  • Areo Hotah GRRM-CBC ['ɑriəʊ həʊ'tɑː], sometimes ['həʊtɑ]
  • Arya GRRM-FF ['ɑɹiə], like English aria
  • Bran GRRM-FF [bɹæn], like English bran
  • Brienne GRRM-RH [bɹi'ɛni]. RD, JL: [brʌɪ'i:n].
  • Caleotte GRRM-CBC: ['kælɪɒt])
  • Catelyn (?: ['katlɪn])
  • Cersei GRRM-RH ['sɝseɪ]. RD ['sə:sɪ]. JL ['sɪəseɪ].
  • Daenerys GRRM-RH [dən'ɛɹɪs] (?: [deɪ'nɛ:rɪs])
  • Dany GRRM-RH ['dæni]
  • Davos GRRM-RH ['dɑːvos]
  • Doran GRRM-CBC [dəʊ'ræn]
  • Jaime GRRM-RH ['dʒeɪmi] (?: ['dʒeɪmɪ])
  • Jojen (?: ['dʒəʊdʒən])
  • Jon GRRM-RH [dʒɑn], like English John
  • Lysa (?: ['laɪsə])
  • Petyr GRRM[26] [pi:'tɚ], like English Peter but RD: [pɪ'tʌɪə]
  • Rickon GRRM-RH ['ɹɪkɑn]
  • Tommen GRRM-CBC ['toʊmən], RD, JL: ['tomən]
  • Tyrion GRRM-RH ['tɪɹiən] (?: ['tɪrɪən])
  • Tywin (?: ['tʌɪwɪn])
  • Viserys (?: [vɪ'sɛ:rɪs])

Houses and surnames

  • Baratheon (?: [bə'rʌθɪən])
  • Lannister GRRM-RH ['lænɪstɚ]
  • Stark GRRM-RH [stɑɹk], like English stark
  • Targaryen GRRM-RH [tɑɹ'gɛɹiən] (?: [ta'gɛ:rɪən])

Presumably, bastard names (like Snow and Rivers) are always pronounced like the corresponding common noun.

Places

  • Asshai RD: [a'ʃʌɪ]. JL: ['aʃʌɪ]
  • Westeros GRRM-RH ['wɛstɚos]

Titles

  • Khaleesi (?: [kə'lɪ:sɪ])
  • Maester (?: ['meɪstə])
  • Ser (?: [sə:], like English sir)

Notes

  1. list Internet book list rating ASOIAF, retrieved December 20th, 2006
  2. SFX Magazine #138 feature, Christmas 2005
  3. So Spake Martin Report #1
  4. Martin in post to Legends, October 6 1998. So Spake Martin – Posts to Legends (SSL)
  5. Message on Martin's website, May 29 2005 It's Done!!!
  6. Message on Martin's website, January 24 2006 Update
  7. Hibberd, James (March 2, 2010). "HBO greenlights Game of Thrones to series". THRfeed.com. http://www.thrfeed.com/2010/03/hbo-greenlights-game-of-thrones-.html. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SciFi_2010-03-02
  9. Levine, Stuart (March 2, 2010). "HBO greenlights Game of Thrones". Variety.com. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118015939.html?categoryid=14&cs=1&query=george+R.+R.+martin. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named variety2007-01
  11. http://www.hbo.com/game-of-thrones/index.html
  12. http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2011/04/19/hbo-renews-game-of-thrones-for-second-season-premiere-grossed-4-2-million-on-hbo-sunday-night/89922
  13. Martin, George R. R. (2007-04-17). "Testor's miniatures cancelled". George R. R. Martin's Official Website. http://www.georgerrmartin.com/archive07.html#04-17b. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  14. Martin, George R. R. (2006-12-06). ""Valyrian Resin" to produce Ice & Fire mini-busts". George R. R. Martin's Official Website. http://www.georgerrmartin.com/archive06.html#12-07. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  15. "Dark Sword Miniatures and Tom Meier to produce George Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire premium miniature line". Dark Sword Miniatures Website. 2007-08-13. http://www.darkswordminiatures.com/gallery/GRRMline.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  16. Gaming Target. (05-13-09). George R.R Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire to become a video game series
  17. Not A Blog. (06-08-09). Videogame Rights Optioned
  18. (05-13-09). George R.R Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire to become a video game series
  19. Not A Blog. (06-08-09). Videogame Rights Optioned
  20. Blood of Dragons MUSH FAQ
  21. Not A Blog - Nothing Holds an Edge Like Valyrian Steel
  22. Valyrian Steel - Swords from George R.R. Martin's "A Song of Ice and Fire"
  23. So Spake Martin Report #107
  24. Random House audio interview with GRRM. [1] �UNIQ5cb66c0b5ee762cd-HTMLCommentStrip7f6b23883a3eac4900000001
  25. Fast Forward video interview with GRRM. [2]
  26. GRRM at To Be Continued 4 (Chicago, IL), May 6–8, 2005. So Spake Martin Report #61

External links


References and Notes

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at A Song of Ice and Fire.
The list of authors can be seen in the page history of A Song of Ice and Fire.
As with A Wiki of Ice and Fire, the content of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.